Disappearing Ink - Book Release Flier-jpg.jpg

Brown, Gita. Be I Whole. Denver, CO: MacMurray & Beck, 1995. (Fiction) Brown edited the Langston Hughes Review at Brown University and works at Rhode Island College.


Brown, William J. The Life of William J. Brown, of Providence, R.I.; with Personal Recollections of Incidents in Rhode Island. Providence, RI: Angel & Co., Printers, 1883. Autobiography of an African-American shoemaker and Baptist minister.


Brown, William J. The Life of William J. Brown of Providence, R.I. Foreword by Rosalind C. Wiggins, Introduction by Joanne Pope Melish. Hanover, NH: University of New England, 2006. 


Browne, Rose Butler. Love My Children. New York, NY: Meredith Press, 1969. (Autobiography) Browne of Newport earned a bachelors and masters at Rhode Island College, and was the first Black woman to earn a PhD in Education from Harvard. 


Bush-Banks, Olivia Ward. The Collected Works of Olivia Ward Bush-Banks. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1991. (Poetry) Bush-Banks (1869-1944) was raised in Providence and received favorable notice from Paul Laurence Dunbar for her first book. 


Bush, Olivia Ward. Driftwood. Providence, RI: Atlantic Printing Co., 1914. (Poetry)


Bush, Olivia Ward. Memories of Calvary: An Easter Sketch. Boston, MA: A. M. E. Book Concern, [1917] (Drama)


Bush, Olivia Ward. Original Poems. Providence, RI: Louis A. Basinet Press, 1899.


Cannon, N. C. W., Rev. A History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the Only One in the United States of America, Styled Bethel Church. Rochester, NY: Strong & Dawson, 1842. In 1841 Cannon became the first settled preacher for the Second A.M.E. Church (renamed Bethel A.M.E.), Providence’s oldest Black church. 


Carroll, Richard Alexander. The Standard Historical Catechism of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. Providence, RI: R.A. Carroll, 1919. PPL


Carter, Robert L. “A History of the Black Churches of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Hampshire.” United Baptist Convention of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Hampshire. (2003). 


Cline, Linda and Robert C. Hayden. A Cultural Guide to African-American Heritage in New England. Malden, MA: Cline Transportation Service, [1992].


Cline, Linda, editor. Time to Dine. Providence, RI: The Greater Providence, RI Chapter of the Links, Inc., 2012. (Cookbook)


Coppin, Fannie Jackson. Reminiscences of School Life, and Hints on Teaching. Philadelphia, PA: African Methodist Episcopal Book Concern, 1913. (Autobiography) Coppin grew up in Newport, attended RI State Normal School, and became a teacher and later principal.

Countryman, J. Writing to Learn Mathematics. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1992. 

Countryman was Head of Lincoln School in Providence for many years.


Crummell, Alexander. Africa and America: Addresses and Discourses. Springfield, MA: Willey & Co., 1891. Crummell pastored Christ Church in Providence. As spokesman for the city’s Black community, he figured prominently in the Dorr Rebellion, working to negotiate favorable ties with whites to ensure that Rhode Island’s African Americans received the rights due to them as citizens. 


Crummell, Alexander. “To the Free Suffrage Convention” 1841. Rhode Island - Interference of the Executive in the Affairs of June 7, 1844 by Edmund Burke. Washington, DC: Blair & Rives, 1844. URI. A petition to the Committee on behalf of the people of color who precipitated the Dorr Rebellion.


Dickerson, Charles Hatfield. “Relation of Colored Man to the Republic: Address to Ives Post, No. 33, G.A.R. Providence, R.I., Nov. 22, 1891, and Liberty and Equality Delivered at Annual Celebration of 15th Amendment.” 1896. Author was an 1889 graduate of Oberlin.


Downing, George T. “Abolition of Colored Schools: A Letter to the Editor of the Providence Journal.” Prominent Newport caterer Downing was in the vanguard of school integration.

Downing, George T. “An Appeal to Negro Voters.” 1865.

Downing, George T. “Dear Sir, the Interest and Anxiety We Feel in the Matter of Educating Our Children Induces Us to Address You.” Providence, RI: G.T. Downing et al., 1858. Criticizes conditions of Providence colored schools and requests desegregation. JHL


Downing, George T. The Colored School Question. [A Petition on Behalf of the Colored Citizens of Newport, R.I.] [Newport, RI: 1865]. JHL


Downing, George T, et al. “We Would Ask, Why Deny Us Our School Rights? Providence, 1859. 

Easton, Hosea. To Heal the Scourge of Prejudice: The Life and Writings of Hosea Easton edited by George R. Price; James Brewer Stewart. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999. Easton was a slave of Nicholas Easton, a founder of Newport.


Eldridge, Elleanor [Francis Harriet W. Greene]. Elleanor’s Second Book. Providence, RI: B.T. Albro. 1839. Freeborn in Warwick in 1785, Eldridge was possibly the first Black female entrepreneur in America.

Eldridge, Elleanor [Francis Harriet W. Greene]. Memoirs of Elleanor Eldridge. Providence, RI: B.T. Albro. (1838) 1847. Written to defray legal costs to regain stolen property.


Elliot. Claude. Pressing On: The Graphic Work of Wilmer Jennings.* Providence, RI: Rhode Island School of Design, 2000. Jennings (1910-90) studied at RISD, trained as a jewelry designer, painter, and printmaker, and designed jewelry for the Imperial Pearl Company in Providence.


Fernandis, Sarah Collins. “A Colored Social Settlement.” The Southern Workman. Vol. XXXIII. No. 6. June, 1904. In 1908, Fernandis, a social worker, created a Black settlement house in East Greenwich’s Scalloptown, the second of its kind in America; it ran until 1912.


Fernandis, Sarah Collins. Poems. Boston, MA: Richard G. Badger, Gorham Press. 1925.


Fernandis, Sarah Collins. “Put Unity in Community: Community Service Rally Song.” Chester, PA: Community Service for Chester and Vicinity, 1919. Musical setting by Frank Casper of her poem. (Sheet music)


Fisher, Rudolph. The Conjure Man Dies: A Mystery Tale of Dark Harlem. New York, NY: Covici Friede, 1932. (Fiction) Fisher grew up in Providence and graduated Classical High School and Brown University with a BA and MA. He figured prominently in the Harlem Renaissance.


Fisher, Rudolph. The Walls of Jericho. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf, 1928. (Fiction)


Forbes, Calvin. From the Book of Shine. Providence, RI: Burning Deck, 1979. (Poetry) Forbes received an MFA from Brown University.


Fortune. The Dying Confession and Declaration of Fortune, a Negro Man, Who was Executed in Newport, (Rhode-Island) on Friday the 14th of May, 1762, for Setting Fire to the Stores on the Long Wharf. Boston: Printed and sold by Fowle and Draper, [1762].


Gaines, Kevin and Beth Parkhurst. “African-Americans in Newport, 1660-1960.” Report to Rhode Island Black Heritage Society. N.p.: n.d. [Circa 1990]. Xerox. RIBHS; NHS

Gardner, Newport. “Promise Anthem.” Boston, MA: No. 90 Washington Street, 1826. Gradner was a Newport music teacher. This marks the first piece of sheet music by an African in America.

Gardner, Newport. “Crooked Shanks.” A Number of Original Airs, Duettos and Trios. [1803]. Gardner’s composition is the first published piece of music by an African in the new world.

Gross, Carl. “List of Rhode Island Stops on the Underground Railroad.” Ms. RIHS. Dr. Gross (1888-1971), “the baby doctor,” researched countless Black Rhode Island topics.


Gross, Carl. “A Brief History on the Life of Matilda Sissieretta (Joyner) Jones, the ‘Black Patti’ 1869-1933.” Ms. RIHS 


Gross, Carl. “The Negro and Events in Rhode Island, 1696-1968.” Providence, RI: 1968. Ms. RIC. 


Gross, Carl. “Notes on Edward Bannister.” Ms. RIHS


Gross, Carl R., MD. Notes on the Negro in Rhode Island Medicine. Edited by Robb Dimmick. Providence, RI: Lifespan, 2005. Exhaustive listing of Blacks in dentistry, nursing, etc. 


Gross, Carl. Short Biographies of African-Americans in Law and the General Assembly. Ms. RIHS


Harper, Michael. Rhode Island: 8 Poems. Cambridge, MA: Pym Randall Press, 1981.


Harris, Robert L. Jr. “Early Black Benevolent Societies: 1780-1830.” The Massachusetts Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, (1979): 603-625.

Hendrix, Melvin K., editor. A Working Bibliography on Development: Theory and Concept. Kingston, RI: University of Rhode Island, 1980. Hendrix is a URI professor.


Hendrix, Melvin K. An International Bibliography of African Lexicons. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1982.


Henry, George. Final Appeal. Providence, RI: Self-published, 1872. Asks the RI Judiciary Committee to report on the General Assembly’s repeal of the “Equal School Rights.” Henry, (1819-1900), one of RI’s wealthiest Blacks, was the first Black to serve on a Rhode Island jury.


Henry, George. Life of George Henry: Together with a Brief History of the Colored People in America. Providence: The Author, H. I. Gould & Co. Printers, 1894. 

Hill, Mary B. Song of the Hills. [East Providence, RI]: Self-published, 1946. (Poetry)

Holley, Joseph W. You Can’t Build a Chimney from the Top: The South through the Life of a Negro Educator. New York, NY: William-Frederick Press. 1948. Holley summered in Narragansett, RI and had close ties to the Hazard and Hodge families.


Hooks, Edward K. The Formation of the NAACP, Providence Branch. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, 2013.


Jackson, Mary Elizabeth. “The Colored Woman in Industry.” Crisis Magazine. NAACP, November 1918, vol. 17, no. 1. Mary Elizabeth Jackson, a statistician at RI Labor Department, was a member of Pond Street Baptist Church and charter member of the Providence NAACP.


Jennings, Corrine. Edward Mitchell Bannister. New York, NY: Whitney Museum, 1992. Jennings, daughter of RISD trained artist Wilmer Jennings, was raised in Providence. 


Jeter, Henry Norval. Pastor Henry N. Jeter’s Twenty-Five Years Experience with the Shiloh Baptist Church and Her History. Providence, RI: Remington Printing Co., 1901. Jeter was pastor of Newport’s African-American church from 1875-1916.


Jeter, Henry Norval. Forty-Two Years Experience as Pastor: Evangelical Humane and Reform Activities. Brief Fifty Years History of the New England Baptist Missionary Convention. [1918?]; reprint: Alexandria, VA: Chadwyck-Healey, [1987].


Jeter, Henry N. Historical Sketch: Shiloh Baptist Church. Newport, RI: B.W. Pearce, Newport Enterprise, Printer, 1891. 


Jeter, Lillian Susie Fitts. Wilberforce Academy. No date. No place. Daughter of H.N. Jeter.


Johnson, Douglas. “Black Employment in Black-Owned Enterprises: A Study of Internal Labor Markets.” Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1979. Ph.D. dissertation. 

Johnson, Douglas. A Survey of Major Black-Owned Businesses in the United States. No place: Self-published, No date. RIBHS


Johnson, Joseph O. “Historical Sketch of Congdon Street Baptist Church, Providence, Rhode Island.” Minutes of the Rhode Island Baptist Anniversaries, Providence, 1894.


Johnston, Rev. Leardrew L., Pastor. A Brief Historical Sketch of the Congdon Street Baptist Church of Providence, R. I. from 1819-1965.


Jones, Rhett S. “Miscegenation and Acculturation in the Narragansett Country of Rhode Island, 1710-1790.” Trotter Review, Vol. 3, Issue 1. January 1981, pages 1-17. Jones, Brown University ’72 AM, ’76 PhD, joined the Brown faculty in 1969 as an associate professor of history and Afro-American studies. <http://scholarworks.umb.edu/trotter_review/vol3/iss1/4/>


Jones, Rhett S. “Plantation Society in the Narragansett Country of Rhode Island, 1690-1790: A Preliminary Study.” Plantation Society, Vol. II, No. 2, Dec.1986: 157-170.


Kelley-Hawkins, Emma D. Four Girls at Cottage City. Providence, RI: 1895, (Self-published). The Continental Printing Co. Republished Boston: James H. Earle 1898. Novel about four racially unidentified young ladies leaving Providence to vacation at Cottage City, a section of the historically black resort town of Oak Bluffs on Martha’s Vineyard. Only one known copy of the 1895 issue, held by Brown University’s John Hay Library. Kelley lived in Providence until her death in 1938 and is buried in Central Falls. Kelley-Hawkins’ racial identity has recently been called into question; it may be that she was a White woman parading as Black for a largely Black readership. Read more here <http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2005/02/20/mistaken_identity?pg=full>


Lima, George, editor. “Rhode Island Cape Verdean Networks of Organizations and Individuals Resource Directory.” No place: No date.


Lyndon, Cesar. Account Books. 1760s. Ms. RIHS. Lydon was a slave of RI Governor Lyndon.


Livingston, Thomas B. “Poems.” Circa 1930. Ms. RIBHS. Mostly spiritual poetry by this Newport poet.

Minkins, John. C. “No Objection to Prohibitive Laws Against Miscegenation.” The Indianapolis Recorder: A Weekly Newspaper Devoted to the Best Interest of the Negroes.

Saturday, 1910-05-07, page 1, columns 4-5. Minkins was the first Black editor of an all-white newspaper, The Evening News in Providence, RI. He later became owner, publisher and editor of the Rhode Island Examiner and editor-in-chief of the Providence News Democrat in 1906.


Mitchell, David D. Black Theology and Youths at Risk. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, 2001. Mitchell was pastor of Congdon Street Baptist Church.

Monroe, Frederic S., editor. Constitution and By-Laws of the Holy Royal Arch Masons of the States of Rhode Island and Massachusetts. N.p., 1910.

Nichols, Charles H. Many Thousand Gone: The Ex-Slaves’ Account of Their Bondage and Freedom. Leiden, the Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1963. Nichols, earned a doctorate from Brown, and was hired in 1969 by Brown to head the newly founded Afro-American Studies department. 


Nichols, Charles H., editor. Arna Bontemps-Langston Hughes Letters, 1925-1967. New York, NY: Dodd Mead. 1980. 


Nichols, Charles. “A Study of the Slave Narrative.” Thesis (Ph.D.). Brown University, October, 1948. JHL


Northrup, Ichabod. An Appeal from a Colored Man whose Father Fought in the Revolution. 1859. 


Nunes, Lawrence R. Black Images. Providence, RI: Self-published, 1992. (Poetry) Providence native.


Patrick, John V. Prelude to Chaos: Deconstructing Our Schools. Xlibris, 2009. Rhode Island teacher of chemistry.


Pearce, Cato. A Brief Memoir of the Life and Religious Experience of Cato Pearce, A Man of Color: Taken Verbatim from His Lips and Published for His Benefit. Pawtucket, RI. 1842. JHL. Autobiography of this South County slave.

Pitts-Wiley, Ricardo, et al. Reading in a Participatory Culture: Remixing Moby-Dick in the English Classroom. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 2013. Pitts-Wiley is a Rhode Island playwright and director.


Prince, Arnold. Carving Wood and Stone: An Illustrated Manual. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981. Prince was an assistant professor of sculpture at RISD.


Prince, Arnold. Arnold Prince: 40+ Years of Art. Willimantic, CT: Akus Gallery, Eastern Connecticut State University, 2004.


Proctor, Samuel DeWitt. My Moral Odyssey. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press. 1989.

Proctor was pastor of Pond Street Baptist Church in Providence.


Proctor, Samuel DeWitt. The Substance of Things Hoped For: A Memoir of African American Faith. New York, NY: Putnam. 1996. Covers his years at Pond Street Baptist Church.


Prophet, Nancy Elizabeth. “Diary, 1922-1934, Paris, France.” Ms. JHL. (Also published in Providence Journal Magazine) In 1918, Prophet was the first Black to graduate from RISD.


Prout, Quintin. Nobe’s Kitchen. Providence, RI: Copper Beech Press, 1998. (Poetry) Prout was born and raised in Providence, where he edits Spoken Jazz Press. 


Puckrein, Gary Alexander. The Black Regiment in the American Revolution. Providence, R.I.: Afro-American Studies Program, Brown University; Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, 1978. 

Redding, J. Saunders. On Being Negro in America. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1951. Redding, 1928 Brown graduate, was its first Black faculty member, the first Black faculty of an Ivy, and Brown’s first Black trustee. His course on Black literature was the first of its kind in a northern college.


Rhea, James N. Bulge in the Color Line. 1953. Providence, RI: Providence Journal. 1953. Rhea was a Black reporter at the Providence Journal.


Rhea, James N. “Reveille in Rhode Island.” Black World. March 1962: 38-42.



Rhea, James N. 211 Howell Street, Showcase in Rehabilitation. Providence, RI: Redevelopment Agency, 1961.


Rickman, Ray.  African Americans on College Hill: 1950-1979. Providence, RI:  

Urban League of Rhode Island, 1999. Oral history based on recollections of 17 African Americans.


Rickman, Ray. How to Avoid Trouble with the Police. Providence, RI: Providence Human Relations Commission, 1982.


Robinson, George W. A Brief Memoir of an Inmate of the ‘Shelter for Colored Orphans,’ in Providence, R.I. Providence, RI: H.H. Brown, 1846. Orphan George W. Robinson (1833-1845) lived at the shelter from age 6 until his death from asthma at 12; describes his faith in salvation and its impact in the months preceding his death.


Robinson, William. “Blacks in Nineteenth Century Rhode Island: An Overview.” Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, 1978. Ms. RIBHS


Robinson, William, Editor. The Proceedings of the Free African Union Society & African Benevolent Society. Newport, Rhode Island, 1780-1824. Providence, RI: Urban League of Rhode Island, 1976. 


Roderick, Peter. Araujo’s Stone: A Novel. TurnKey Press, 2005. (See Alcantara above)


Rose, Tricia. The Hip Hop Wars: What We Talk about When We Talk about Hip Hop -and Why It Matters. New York, NY: BasicCivitas, 2008. Brown University professor.


Schuyler, George. Black No More: Being an Account of the Strange and Wonderful Workings of Science in the Land of the Free, A.D. 1933-1940. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1989. Schuyler, a native of Providence, became a national journalist and social critic.


Scott, Daniel M., III. “The House I Live In: Being Black and Gay in Rhode Island.” Black Lavender 2: Gay Black Men in Rhode Island, edited by Robb Dimmick; [Providence, R.I.]: RICH, [2009]. Scott is a Rhode Island College professor.


Scott, Daniel M., III. “A Knowledge Disquieting and Liberating”: Black Gay Male Writers in Rhode Island, ed. Robb Dimmick. Providence, RI: 2005. Essay accompanying the exhibit “Black Lavender: Writings by Black Gay Men,” curated by Robb Dimmick at Brown University.


Senna, Carl. Rhode Island’s Freedom Trail: An Illustrated Map. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, 1986.


Simmons, Judy Dothard. Judith’s Blues. Detroit, MI: Broadside Press, 1973. (Poetry) The author was born in Westerly, RI.

Smith, Venture. A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa:
But Resident above Sixty Years in the United States of America. Related by Himself. New London, CT: C. Holt at the Bee-Office, 1798. Smith (1729?-1805), bought as a “venture” by Robertson Mumford, steward of the slave ship Charming Susanna in 1739, was taken to Rhode Island.  


Sokenu,  Julius Olusola. “Betwixt and Between: Black Gay Male Academics, Artists and Performers in Rhode Island.” Black Lavender 2: Gay Black Men in Rhode Island, edited by Robb Dimmick; [Providence, R.I.]: RICH, [2009].


Spywood, George A. The Experience of George A. Spywood. [Middleton, MA?]: Charles H. Pelton, Printer, 1843. Autobiography of a Warwick man claiming Indian lineage. 


Stewart, Rowena, et al. Creative Survival: The Providence Black Community in the 19th Century. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, 1985. 


Stewart, Rowena. Creative Survival: the Providence Black Community in the 19th Century: Gallery Guide. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, 1985. 

Stewart, Rowena, and Clifton Moore*. “A Heritage Discovered: Blacks in Rhode Island. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society. 1975. Illustration and design by Lawrence Sykes.*


Sykes, Lawrence (with Raymond Patterson*). Elemental Blues: Poems 1981-1982. Merrick, NY: Cross-cultural Communications, 1983. Illustrated by Sykes. Sykes was a professor of art at Rhode Island College where he developed a photography concentration curriculum.


Terry, Wallace. Bloods: Black Veterans of the Vietnam War: An Oral History. New York, NY: Random House, 1984. While at Brown University, Terry became the first Black editor-in-chief of an Ivy League newspaper.


Turville, George L. Insurance Viewpoint. West Kingston, RI: Stella’s Printing, 1967. Turville, a realtor and antique dealer, was a Newport native and armchair scholar.


Turville, George L. “The Negro in Providence, 1940.” Providence, RI: Providence Urban League, 1939. Ms. RIBHS


Turville, George L. Resurrection City Retrospection. Wakefield, RI: HELPS Secretarial Service, 1977. Recounts the author’s experience at Resurrection City in Washington, DC.  

Van Horne, Mahlon. “Negroes in Rhode Island Past and Present.” Ca. 1887. Ms. RIBHS


Van Leesten, Michael S. “Bottom Out or Lifting Up: A Case for Full Employment.” Adherent: O.I.C. National Journal. August 1975


Veney, Bethany. Aunt Betty’s Story: The Narrative of Bethany Veney, A Slave Woman. Boston, MA: Press of Geo. H. Ellis, 1889. Born a slave in Virginia, Veney was purchased by George Adams, an abolitionist, who sent her to his home in Providence to be free. 


Waite, LeMoyne; Omar Bradley*, et al. Voices from Within: Arts-in-Corrections. Warwick, RI: Rhode Island Department of Corrections. 1983. (Poetry)


Washington, S.A.M. George Thomas Downing: A Sketch of His Life and Times. Newport, RI: The Author. The Milne Printery, 1910. The author was Downing’s daughter.



Watkins, Garrett H. and John Davis. Black Honorary Shipmasters. Washington, DC: The Association for the Study of Afro-American Life & History, 1979. Watkins, Cranston native.


Weaver, Rose. “Momma’s Little Helper;” “Chips on My Shoulder.” Monologues for Women by Women, edited by Tori Haring-Smith. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994: 124-127.


Weeden, John E. Speech...in the House of Representatives, January Session of the Legislature of Rhode Island, 1865, on the Equal School Rights of Colored Children. Providence, RI: A.C. Greene, printer, [1865] 


Wheatland, Marcus F. “Getting Along Under Difficulties.” Colored American Magazine. Vol. 14, No. 4 (April 1908). Wheatland was the first Black physician in Newport and first Black radiology specialist in the U.S.


Wheatley, Phillis. “Letters to Obour Tanner, 1772-1779.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Vol. VII: 267-279. Seven letters addressed to Obour Tanner, a Negro friend in Newport, R.I.


Wheatley, Phillis. Letters of Phillis Wheatley: The Negro-slave Poet of Boston. Boston, MA: Privately printed by J. Wilson and Son, 1864. Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. VII: 267-279.


Wheatley, Phillis. “On Messrs. Hussey and Coffin.” Newport Mercury, 21 December 1767. Her first published piece, a poem about two men who nearly drown at sea.


Wheeler, A. A., Mrs. History of the Olney Street Baptist Church from December 22, 1901 to December 22, 1906. Providence, RI: Olney Street Baptist Church. 

Whitlow, Carolyn Beard. Wild Meat. Providence, RI: Lost Roads, 1986. (Poetry) Whitlow received a M.F.A from Brown University.


Whitten, Thomas P. John Hope Settlement House: 1929-2005. Warwick, RI: Rose Hall Media Company, 2015. 


Williams, Harry McKinley. A Catalogue to the Edna Frazier Memorial Collection. Providence, RI: Providence Public Library, 1989. The Frazier Collection, held at South Providence Branch Library, was the largest circulating collection of African American books in RI.

Williams, Harry McKinley. “When Black is Right: The Life and Writings of George S. Schuyler.” 1988. Thesis, Brown University


Williamson, Frederick C. Facts of Negroes’ Contribution Before and During America’s 200 Years of Development. N.p. [Joseph Le Count*], [1975]. Williamson was a noted preservationist.


Wright, Theodore S.* and Samuel E. Cornish*, The Colonization Scheme Considered, in its Rejection by the Colored People - In its Tendency to Uphold Caste - In its Unfitness for Christianizing and Civilizing The Aborigines of Africa, and for Putting a Stop to The African Slave Trade. Newark, NJ: Printed by Aaron Guest, 1840. Wright (1797-1847) born to free parents in Providence, was a member of the Abolitionist movement, and a conductor for the URR.


Yates, Josephine Silone. “The National Association of Colored Women.” Voice of the Negro, Volume 1, 1904: 283-287; reprint: New York, NY: Negro University Press, 1969.


Rhode Island Slavery and Abolitionism


Andrews, Edward E. “What About the ‘Others’? The Social Experience of Slavery, Servitude, and Apprenticeship in the Families of Colonial Newport” (N.d, n.p)

Bartlett, Irving H. From Slave to Citizen: The Story of the Negro in Rhode Island. Providence, RI: Urban League of RI, 1954. Reprint 1972.


Bates, W. Lincoln. “Slavery Days in Rhode Island.” Bulletin of the Jamestown Historical Society, No. 2, 1921, 1-14.


Bigelow, Bruce M. “Aaron Lopez: Colonial Merchant of Newport” and “The Commerce of Rhode Island with the West Indies, Before the American Revolution” (Thesis)


See: Bjerregaard, Marcia in Juvenilia


Brennan, Thomas G. “An Examination of the Literature of Rhode Island’s Involvement in the Slave Trade.” Student paper. (December 20, 1979.). RIHS.


Carpenter, Esther Bernon. “Negro Slavery in Colonial Rhode Island; ” “Traditions of Narragansett Servitude;” South County Studies of Some Eighteenth Century Persons, Places & Conditions in that Part of Rhode Island Called Narragansett. Boston, MA: D. B. Updike’s Merrymount Press, 1924.


Chace, Elizabeth Buffum. Anti-Slavery Reminiscences. Central Falls, R.I.: E. L. Freeman & Son, State Printers, 1891.


Clark-Pujara, Christy. “The Business of Slavery and Antislavery Sentiment in Rhode Island: The Case of Rowland Gibson Hazard – An Antislavery Negro Cloth Dealer.” Rhode Island History. Vol. 71, No. 2, Summer/Fall 2013: 35-56.


Clark-Pujara, Christy. Dark Work: The Business of Slavery in Rhode Island. New York, NY: New York University Press. 2016.


Clark-Pujara, Christy Mikel. “Slavery, Emancipation and Black Freedom in Rhode Island, 1652-1842.” Dissertation. January 2009. University of Iowa.



Conforti, Joseph. “Samuel Hopkins and the Revolutionary Antislavery Movement.” Rhode Island History, 38, 1979: 39-49.


Coughtry, Jay. The Notorious Triangle: R.I. and the African Trade in Slaves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1981.


Coughtry, Jay; Schipper, Martin, eds. Papers of the American Slave Trade.  Series A.  Selections from the Rhode Island Historical Society. Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1996. Series A: Selections from the RIHS focusing on importation of slaves from Africa, including financial concerns, risk factors; slave treatment and slave revolts, etc. Part 1:  Brown family collections dating from early 1700s to early 1800s, including Moses Brown and Providence Abolition Society minute book, 1789-1827.  Part 2:  Papers of merchants of Providence, Newport, and Bristol involved in slave trade, including log books, narratives of onboard slave revolts, etc.  Series B: Selections from the Newport Historical Society. Part 2: Aaron Lopez collections including letter books, 1752-1781; shipping papers; account books, receipt books, 1755-1775.


Crane, Verner W. A Rhode Island Slaver: Trade Book of the Sloop Adventure, 1773-1774; From Original Manuscript in the Library of George L. Shepley. Providence, RI: 

Shepley Library, 1922. Reproduction of a document from the slaver Adventure providing unique insight into the trade in the later 18th century, a day to day record of the barter in rum and Negroes.


Deutsch, Sarah. “Those Elusive Guineamen: Newport Slavers, 1735-1774.” New England Quarterly. June 1982. No. 55: 229-253. 


DeWolfe, Thomas Norman. Inheriting the Trade: A Northern Family Confronts Its Legacy as the Largest Slave-Trading Dynasty in U.S. History. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2009. Unravels this Bristol family’s entanglement in slavery.


Donnan, Elizabeth. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America: New England and the Middle Colonies, Volume III. Washington DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1932. A wealth of primary material about the Rhode Island trade.

Dow, George Francis. Slave Ships and Slaving. Toronto: Coles Publishing, 1980.

Chapter on Rhode Island slave voyages.


Durant, Charles H. Ill, Soraya Moore, Arline Ruth Kiven, and Bradford Fuller Swan. “The Negro in Rhode Island: From Slavery to Community.” Rhode Islander, Providence Journal, (Oct. 12, 1969): 16-17, 19-20, 22-23.

Eltis, David, et al, editors. Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Contains a roster of Rhode Island slave ship owners and captains.

Emlen, Robert P. “Slave Labor at the College Edifice: Building Brown University’s University Hall in 1770.” Rhode Island History, (Summer 2008) Vol. 66, No. 2: 35-40.

Fitts, Robert K. Inventing New England’s Slave Paradise: Master/Slave Relations in 18th Century Narragansett, Rhode Island. New York, NY: Routledge, 1998. 

See: *“Fortune. 


“George Scott, Slave Trader of Newport.” American Neptune, 12 (1952): 222-228. 


Gorham, James. “Account of Bennet Munro, Master of the Schooner Concord.” 1805. Slave Ship Documents. The “Concord,” a slave ship, brought 90 slaves from Africa to Bristol in 1807. Documents the charges for the maintenance of and the proceeds from the sale of slaves.


Green, Francis Whipple. “The Slave-Wife.” Liberty Chimes. Providence, RI: Providence Ladies Antislavery Society, 1845. 


Hazard, Caroline. College Tom: A Study of Life in Narragansett in XVIII Century. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin and Co., 1893. A study of the family’s involvement in slavery.


Hopkins, Samuel. “A Discourse Upon the Slave-trade, and the Slavery of the Africans. Delivered in the Baptist Meeting-house at Providence, before the Providence Society for Abolishing the Slave-Trade, &c. At Their Annual Meeting, on May 17, 1793.” Providence, RI: J. Carter, [1793].


Howell, Ricardo. “A Special Report: Slavery, the Brown Family of Providence and Brown University.” No place, no date.


“Inhuman Bondage: Slavery in Rhode Island.” Providence Sunday Journal Magazine. 1990.


Johnson, Cynthia Mestad. James DeWolf: Slaving Practices, Business Enterprises, and Politics, 1784-1816. Charleston, SC: History Press, 2014. 


Johnston, William D. Slavery in Rhode Island, 1755-1776. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Historical Society, 1894. < https://archive.org/stream/slaveryinrhodeis00john#page/n5/mode/2up > <https://archive.org/stream/slaveryinrhodeis00john#page/n5/mode/2up>


See: Jones, Rhett


Kiven, Arline. Then Why the Negroes: Nature and Course of the Anti-Slavery Movement in Rhode Island: 1637-1861. Providence, RI: Urban League of Rhode Island, 1973.


Lemons, J. Stanley. “Rhode Island and the Slave Trade.” Rhode Island History. Fall 2002. Volume 60, Number 4: 95-104.


Lin, Rachel Chernos. “The Rhode Island Slave Traders: Butchers, Bakers and Candlestick Makers.” Slavery and Abolition, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Dec. 2002): 21-38. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/714005253#.VWHUqVIYF-8>


Lisle, Janet. “Slaves in Little Compton.” History of Little Compton, The First Light: Sakonnet 1660-1820. Little Compton, RI: Little Compton Historical Society. 2010: 87-92


Losowsky, Andrew, et al. A Thousand Ships: A Ritual of Remembrance Marking the Bicentennial of the Abolition of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. [Providence, RI]: Museum on Site, 2012.


McBurney, Christian M., “Cato Pearce’s Memoir: A Rhode Island Slave Narrative,” Rhode Island History, 67, Winter–Spring 2009: 3–25.


McBurney, Christian M.  A History of Kingston, RI, 1700-1900, Heart of Rural South County.  Kingston, RI: Pettaquamscutt Historical Society, 2004. Chapters on slavery; the South Kingstown town council refusing to free a female slave despite her master’s wishes; the Kingston Anti-Slavery Society; and the Fayerweather family. <www.freewebs.com/kingstonrihistory>


McBurney, Christian M.  Jailed for Preaching: the Autobiography of Cato Pearce, a Freed Slave from Washington County, Rhode Island.  Kingston, RI: Pettaquamscutt Historical Society, 2006. Examines slavery in southern RI where Pearce was a slave of Elisha Potter. <www.freewebs.com/jailedforpreaching>


McBurney, Christian M. “The Rise and Decline of the South Kingstown Planters, 1660-1783.” BA honors thesis, Department of History, Brown University.


McEnery, William K. Sources for Eighteenth Century Anti-Slavery Sentiment in Rhode Island. Providence: Publisher not identified. 1978. 


Melish, Joanne Pope. Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and “Race” in New England, 1780-1860. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1998.


Mills, Barbara. “Religion and Slavery’s End.” Providence 1630-1800: Women are Part of Its History. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc. 2002: 226-236.


Mills, Barbara. “Slaves.” Providence 1630-1800: Women are Part of Its History. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc. 2002: 176-193


Miller, William Davis. “The Narragansett Planters.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society. Vol. 43. 1934.


Mock Negro Elections: The Slave Trade in Early Days in Newport, Rhode Island. Hoag, Wade & Co., Philadelphia. [N.d, n.p,]


Myers, John L. “Anti-Slavery Agencies in Rhode Island, 1832-35.” Rhode Island History, Vol. 29, August and November, 1970: 82-93.


Myers, John L. “Antislavery Agents in Rhode Island, 1835-1837.” Rhode Island History, Vol. 30, Winter 1971: 21-32.


Nadalin, Christy Millard. “The Last Years of the Rhode Island Slave Trade.” Rhode Island History. May 1998. Vol. 54, No. 2: 35-49.


Parker, Joseph P. “Slavery in Rhode Island.” Thesis. University of Rhode Island. 1962.


See: *Pearce, Cato. 


Platt, Virginia Bever. “‘And Don’t Forget the Guinea Voyage’: The Slave Trade of Aaron Lopez of Newport.” William & Mary Quarterly. Vol 32, No 4, Oct 1975: 601-618.


“Providence Anti-Slavery Society. The Public are Respectfully Invited to Peruse the Following Concise and Able Defence of Abolition Principles, Prepared and Published Under Direction of the Providence Anti-Slavery Society.” [Providence?]: 1833. 


“Providence Society for Abolishing the Slave-Trade. Constitution of a Society for Abolishing the Slave-trade: with Several Acts of the Legislatures of the States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode-Island, for that Purpose.” Providence: John Carter, 1789. PPL


Providence Society for Abolishing the Slave Trade Minute Book. 1789-1827. RIHS. 


Proceedings of the Rhode Island Anti-slavery Convention. Providence Rhode Island Anti-slavery Convention. BookSurge Publishing. 1836.


Rappleye, Charles. Sons of Providence: The Brown Brothers, the Slave Trade, and the American Revolution. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. 2006.


Ray, John Michael. “Newport’s Golden Age: A Study of the Newport Slave Trade.” Negro History Bulletin, 25, 1961: 51-57.


Reilly, James F. “The Providence Abolition Society.” Rhode Island History, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1962: 33-48. 

Reilly, James Francis. “Moses Brown and the Rhode Island Anti-Slavery Movement.” Masters thesis, Brown University, 1951.


“Report and Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Providence Anti-Slavery Society.” Providence, RI: H. H. Brown, 1833. PPL


Rhode Island and the African Slave Trade: John Brown and the Colonial Economy of Slavery. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Historical Society. N.d. [c2003]


“Rhode Island State Anti-Slavery Convention, Providence, 1836. Proceedings of the Rhode-Island Anti-Slavery Convention, Held in Providence, on the 2d, 3d and 4th of February, 1836.” Providence, RI: H. H. Brown, Printer, 1836.


Rommel-Ruiz, W. Bryan. “Atlantic Revolutions: Slavery and Freedom in Newport, Rhode Island and Halifax, Nova Scotia, in the Era of the American Revolution.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1999.


Slave Trade, The. Providence, RI: Providence Institution for Savings. 1933. 


Slavery and Justice: Report of Brown University’s Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice. Providence, RI: Brown University Press, 2007.

“Some Old Papers Relating to the Slave Trade.” Newport Historical Society Bulletin, No. 62, 1927: 10-34.

See: *Smith, Venture.


Stachiw, Myron O. “‘For the Sake of Commerce’: Rhode Island, Slavery, and the Textile Industry.” Providence, RI: RI Historical Society, 1982. Essay to accompany the exhibit “The Loom and the Lash: Northern Industry and Southern Slavery.” 


Stachiw, Myron O. “Negro Cloth”: Northern Industry and Southern Slavery. Boston MA: Boston National Historical Park, 1981. Examines Hazard’s Peace Dale Manufacturing Co.

*Stewart, Rowena and Andrew Bell* “Rhode Island Underground Railroad.” Underground Railroad in New England. [Boston, MA] American Revolution Bicentennial Administration, 1976: 6-7.


Unrighteous Traffick: Rhode Island’s Slave History. (See below in Online Resources)


Van Broekhoven, Deborah Bingham. “‘A Determination to Labor…’ Female Antislavery Activity in Rhode Island.” Rhode Island History, Vol. 44, May, 1985: 35-46.


Van Broekhoven, Deborah G. The Devotion of These Women: Rhode Island in the Antislavery Network. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002.


Wax, Donald D. “The Browns of Providence and the Slaving Voyage of the Brig Sally, 1764-1765.” American Neptune, 32, 3. 1972: 171-179. 

Wax, Donald D. “Thomas Rogers and the Rhode Island Slave Trade.” American Neptune, 35 (1975): 289-301.


See: Trumbull, Henry


Weiler, Paul. “Rhode Island – West Indies Trade in the Eighteenth Century.” Masters Thesis. University of Iowa. 1947.


Woodward, Carl R. Plantation in Yankeeland: The Story of Cocumscussoc, Mirror of Colonial Rhode Island. Chester, CT: Pequot Press, 1971. “The first of the great slave-holding plantations of the region and its mansion house, popularly known as ‘Smith’s Castle.’”


African Americans in Revolutionary Rhode Island


Andrews, Edward E. “‘Creatures of Mimic and Imitation’: The Liberty Tree, Black Elections, and the Politicization of African Ceremonial Space in Revolutionary Newport, Rhode Island.”  Radical History Review, 99 (2007): 121-139.


Andrews, Edward E. “The Crossings of Occramar Marycoo, or Newport Gardner.” Atlantic Biographies: Individuals and Peoples in the Atlantic World, edited by Jeffrey A. Fortin & Mark Meuwese. Leiden, the Netherlands; Boston, MA: E.J. Brill, 2014.


Andrews, Edward E. Native Apostles: Black and Indian Missionaries in the British Atlantic World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013. Bristol Yamma and John Quamine, both of Newport, feature prominently.


Attempts of Rhode Island to Raise a Regiment of Slaves for Service in the War of the Revolution - The So-called ‘Rhode Island Black Regiment’ of 1778,’ The. U.S. Army War College. No date.


*Benard, Akeia A. F. “The Free African American Cultural Landscape: Newport, RI, 1774-1826,” Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Connecticut, 2008.


Boyle, Joseph Lee. Death Seem’d to Stare: The New Hampshire and Rhode Island Regiments at Valley Forge. Clearfield, 2009. Consists of an alphabetical list in excess of 2,500 New Hampshire and Rhode Island soldiers abstracted from Revolutionary War muster and payrolls.


Bradby, Marie A. “In 1778, Former Slaves Saved the Day.” Providence Journal, Rhode Islander, Aug. 24, 1975: 14-16.


See: Brennan, Linda Crotta in Juvenilia


Remove - Brooks, Jr., George E. “The Providence African Society’s Sierra Leone Emigration Scheme, 1794-1795: Prologue to the African Colonization Movement.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1974: 183-202. <http://people.duke.edu/~ldbaker/classes/backtoafrica/documents/brooks1.pdf>

Chamberlain, Mildred Mosher. Rhode Island 1777 Military Census. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1985. Originally published in Rhode Island Roots, Dec 1981 and Sept 1984. RI military census enumerating Negroes and Quakers in the state militia.


Conlon, Noel P. “Rhode Island Negroes in the Revolution: A Bibliography.” Rhode Island History, 29, Winter & Spring 1970: 52-53. Forty citations on RI Blacks during the war.


Crane, Elaine Forman. “The Black Community.” A Dependent People: Newport, Rhode Island in the Revolutionary Era. New York, NY: Fordham University Press, 1985: 76-84.


Cranston, G. Timothy. “Slaves to Soldiers – The Roome Family, Part 1.” North Kingstown, RI: The View from Swampton. Vols. V-VVIII. April 2003-December 2006: 295-297.

Franklin, Susan B. “Newport: Early History of the Negro in New England.” Unpublished address before the Union Congregational Church, Newport, RI. No date. RIBHS, NHS

Geake, Robert. From Slave to Soldier: The 1st Rhode Island Regiment in the American Revolution. Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2016.


Greene, Col. Christopher. “Size, Role and Returns of the First RI Regiment, 1780.” RIHS


*Greene, Lorenzo J. “The Negro in the Armed Forces of the United States, 1619-1783.” Negro History Bulletin 14, 1951: 123-127. 


*Greene, Lorenzo J. The Negro in Colonial New England. New York: Athenaeum, 1974.


*Greene, Lorenzo J. “Some Observations on the Black Regiment of Rhode Island in the American Revolution.” Journal of Negro History 37 (April 1952): 142-172. Tabulates the names of 168 men raised for a Rhode Island regiment in February, 1778. 


Grundset, Eric; Briana L. Diaz; Hollis L. Gentry, Jean D. Strahan. Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots in the Revolutionary War: A Guide to Service, Sources and Studies. Washington, DC: National Society Daughters of the American Revolution, 2008. 

See: *Jones, Rhett


Lisle, Janet. “Colonel Greene’s Patriot Blacks.” History of Little Compton, the First Light: Sakonnet 1660-1820. Little Compton Historical Society. 2010: 92-93.


“List of Negro Slaves Inlisted [sic] into the Continental Battallions and to Whom They Belonged, 1778.”


“List of Slaves Enlisted in to the Continental Army, A.” Narragansett Historical Register Vol. 1, No. 4. April, 1883.

MacGunnigle, Bruce C. “Ichabod Northup: Slave and Soldier of the Revolution.” 13th Regional Geological Conference: Navigating the Past: Sailing into the Future. Providence, RI, April 2015. (Speech)


MacGunnigle, Bruce C. “Men of Color in the R.I. Regimental Book for 1781.” Rhode Island Roots: Journal of the Rhode Island Genealogical Society. Vol. 38, No. 4. December 2012: 206-219.


MacGunnigle, Bruce C. Regimental Book: Rhode Island Regiment for 1781. Rhode Island Society of the Sons of the American Revolution: East Greenwich, RI, 2011. Original copy in the Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection at Brown University.


McIntire, Darrell. “Cheese-Making at Cocumscussoc.” Cocumscussoc Association Castle Chronicle. Vol. 17, No. 4, Winter 2008; Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2009.


Meredith, Austin. “Colonel Christopher Greene.” 2013. 4-15. Online. Considerable discussion of slaves recruited for the Continental Army, including a list of slaves from Kings County. <http://www.kouroo.info/kouroo/thumbnails/G/ColonelChristopherGreene.pdf>

“Minority Military Service, Rhode Island, 1775-1783.” [Washington, D.C.]: National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, 1988. 

Moore, George H. Historical Notes on the Employment of Negroes in the American Army of the Revolution. New York, NY: Charles T. Evans, 1862. An early attempt to analyze the number of Blacks used as regulars, militia, and as laborers for the Continentals.

Moore, George H. “Historical Notes on the Employment of Negroes in the American Army of the Revolution.” Magazine of History, 1 (1907). 

Pinson, Ann. “The New England Rum Era: Drinking Styles and Social Change in Newport, RI, 1720-1770.” Working Papers on Alcohol and Human Behavior, Number 8. Providence, RI: Department of Anthropology, Brown University, 1980.


See: *Puckerein, Gary.


Richman, Irvirng Berdine. Enlistment of Negroes, Mulattoes and Indian Man Slaves 1778-1780 in Rhode Island, a Study in Separatism. American Commonwealths Series, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin & Co., 1918.


Rider, Sidney S. “Historical Inquiry Concerning the Attempt to Raise a Regiment of Slaves by Rhode Island During the War of the American Revolution.” Providence, RI: Sidney Rider, RI Historical Tracts, 10 (1880): 1-86. Account of slaves who enlisted in Continental regiments with comments about their owners and their market value.


Rotenberg, Joshua. “Caste, Class and Religion: Black-Jewish Interactions in Pre-Revolutionary Newport.” Senior honors thesis. Brown University. 1991. 

Stiles, Ezra. “To the Public.” [Newport, R.I.: Printed by Solomon Southwick, 1776]. Circular letter, proposing to send Black missionaries, Yamma & Quamine, to Africa.


See *Williamson, Frederick C.


*Wilson, Louis. “Rhode Island’s First Rhode Island Regiment – The Black Regiment, 1777-1780.” Ms.  


*Wilson, Louis. “Slavery and Citizenship: Black Rhode Islanders in the American Revolutionary War.” Paper presented at the Smith College Social History Seminar, March 1992. 


Rhode Island African Americans in the Civil War


Addeman, Joshua A. They Fought for Liberty: Two Accounts of Coloured Troops in the American Civil War. UK: Leonaur Ltd., 2009. Capt. Joshua Addeman’s concise account of commanding the colored soldiers of the 14th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery Regiment. 


Addeman, Joshua A. Reminiscences of Two Years with the Colored Troops. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2010.


Carlson, Kenneth S. “Black and White: The Third and Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery Regiments: A Socioeconomic and Military Profile.” Thesis. Rhode Island College, 1993.


Chenery, William H. The Fourteenth Regiment Rhode Island Heavy Artillery (Colored) in the War to Preserve the Union, 1861-1865. Providence, RI: Snow & Farnham, 1898. Facsimile edition: Negro Universities Press, 1969.

“Corps d’Afrique: Rhode Island 14th Regiment Heavy Artillery: Rhode Island African-Americans in the Civil War.” Providence, RI: Office of the Secretary of State. [1990?]. Reproductions of 10 documents housed in the RI Archives.


“Inventory to the Rhode Island United States Colored Artillery (Heavy) 11th Regiment Collection.” Providence, RI: Phillips Memorial Library, Providence College, 1976. Details Allen F. Cameron’s command and the treatment of Black troops by White officers.


McManus, Edgar. “The Monument in Memory of the Rhode Island Soldiers and Sailors, who Fell Victims to the Rebellion.” Providence: Urban League of Rhode Island, 1974.


Putney, Martha. “Black Merchant Seaman of Newport, 1803-1865: A Case Study in Foreign Commerce.” Journal of Negro History, LVII, #2, April, 1972: 156-168.


Report of His Excellency George Peabody Wetmore, Governor, Relative to Clothing Account of Fourth Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers, Etc. Providence: E. L. Freeman & Son. 1886. Investigates Black soldiers’ complaints regarding unequal compensation for their clothing.

“Rhode Island African-Americans in the Civil War Union Navy.” Providence: Secretary of State. 2002. Rhode Island Secretary of State. Name, town, age, rank, occupation, etc.


“Rhode Island’s African American Soldiers in the Civil War.” RIHS.


Rinaldi, Harriette C. Born at the Battlefield of Gettysburg: An African-American Family Saga. Markus Wiener Publishing Inc., 2004. Based on letters by Victor Chambers, a runaway slave who became an artist in Providence, written to the author’s great-grandfather.

Sherman, George R. The Negro as a Soldier. Personal Narratives, Seventh Series, No. 7. Providence, RI: Soldiers and Sailors Historical Society of Rhode Island, 1913. 

The Black Church in Rhode Island

See additional references in Finding Aids below.


“A Brief History of Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church.” 100th Annivesary, Mortage Burning, and New England Annual Conference. Newport, RI, 1945.


“A Brief History of Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church.” Mt. Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church: 122 Anniversary Banquet. Newport, RI, 1967.


A Short Summary and Declaration of Faith of the Abyssinian Free-will Baptist Church in Providence, to which is added the Church Covenant. Providence, RI, 1836. 

(A.M.E. Church) The Act of Incorporation and By-laws of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Providence. Providence, RI: H.H. Brown, Printer, 1839. RIHS.


(A.M.E. Church) Minutes of the Annual Conference of the New England District of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in America. Providence, RI: African Methodist Episcopal Church. New England District. 1855-1880. RIHS


An Act to Incorporate the African Union Church, in the City of Providence [1860] RISA


See: *Anderson, Rev. James Harvey. 


See: *Asher, Jeremiah


By-laws of the African Union Church in Providence. Providence, RI: The Church, 1860? RIHS.


By-Laws of Ebenezer Baptist Church, 475 Cranston St., Providence, R1. 1969. RIBHS


See: *Cannon, N. C. W., Rev. 


See: *Carroll, Richard Alexander.


See: *Carter, Robert L. 


See: *Crummell, Alexander


Congdon Street Baptist Church: The Friendly Church on the Hill. [Providence, RI], ca. 2011.


Field, S. W., compiler. A Memorial of Rev. Henry Jackson,* D.D., Late Pastor of Central Baptist Church, Newport, RI. Boston, 1872.


*Gross, Carl. Directory of Churches and Religious Organizations of Rhode Island. WPA. Providence, RI: The Rhode Island Historical Records Survey Project, December 1939. 


Hazard, Jeremiah Peace. “The Colored Baptist Church at Mooresfield,” The Narragansett Historical Register, v. II, no. 2, October 1883.


“How Should the Church Coal be Bought?: Troublous Times Among the Smoked Saints at Providence, R.I.” [Rhode Island: 188-?] Newspaper clipping with engraving. JHL.

See: *Jeter, Henry Norval. 


See: *Johnson, Joseph O.


See: *Johnston, Rev. Leardrew L., Pastor.


Lemons, J. Stanley. Black in a White Church: Biographies of African American Members of the First Baptist Church in America, edited by Lee McDaniel and Ray Rickman.* Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, 2010. Details 138 African Americans who became members from 1762 to 2010.


Manual of the Pond Street Baptist Church, Cor. of  Pond and Angle, the Faith, Covenant, Constitution and By-laws…with a List of Its Members and a Brief Sketch of Its History. Providence, RI, 1890.


“Narragansett Indian Church, Charlestown, R. I. in Charlestown History, The.” Charlestown Historical Society Bulletin (April, 1969).


“Newport’s Black Churches: 1840-1960.” N. d. Xerox. RIBHS


O’Connell, Thomas A.; Isabelle Smith Dortch. Pleasant Street Baptist Church History (1874-2009): Faith and Vision. N.p.: Share the Vision Ministries, [2011]. Westerly Public Library. Originally called First Advent Christian Colored Church of Westerly, RI, includes lists of baptisms (since 1979), marriages (since 1975) and deaths (since 1971)


“Oldest Negro Church.” Providence Journal. 1909.


Patten, William. Sermon Delivered at the Request of the African Benevolent Society: in the Second Congregational Church, Newport, 12th April, 1808. Newport, RI: Printed at the Office of the Newport Mercury, 1808. Includes: Constitution of the African Benevolent Society, 13-15.


See: *Proctor, Samuel DeWitt. 


“Report on Newport’s Black Churches: 1840-1960.” Ms. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, 1985.


Scott, James S. “Ebenezer Baptist Church, 135 Dodge Street, Providence, RI: A Transitional Church.” 1962. Ms. RIBHS


Sherer, Robert Glenn, Jr. “Negro Churches in Rhode Island before 1860,” Rhode Island History. Vol. 25, No. 1: January 1966: 9-25


*Thomas, G. B. “A Happy Meeting for the Following Churches and Congregations in Providence, R.I.” Providence, 1872. Broadside. Hymn written from the Fourteenth Chapter of St. John. JHL. Thomas was a traveling African American fundraiser. Lists Black churches in Providence with their pastors’ names. 


See: *Wheeler, A. A., Mrs.


African American Social & Political History in Rhode Island


Annual Report of Association for the Benefit of Colored Orphans. Providence, RI: The Association, 1840-194-?


*Armstead, Myra B. Young. “The History of Blacks in Resort Towns: Newport, Rhode Island and Saratoga Springs, New York, 1870-1930.” PhD dissertation. University of Chicago, 1987.


*Armstead, Myra B. Young. Lord, Please Don’t Take Me in August: African Americans in Newport and Saratoga Springs, 1879-1930. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press. 1999.


Armstrong, Jan. “A Community of Spirit: People of Color in Providence, Rhode Island, 1870-1950.” 1998. Ms. RIBHS


Association for the Benefit of Colored Orphans (Providence, RI). Annual Report. Providence, RI: The Association, 1840-between 1940 and 1949? Reports 1846-1885 issued under, Providence Association for the Benefit of Colored Children and 1886-1939 under Providence Shelter for Colored Children. 


*Attwell, Ernest T. A Study of Recreational Opportunities for Negroes in Providence, Rhode Island. Providence: Bureau of Colored Work. Ca. 1940. PPL.


*Barboza, Ronald. A Salute to Cape Verdean Musicians and Their Music. New Bedford, MA: Documentation and Computerization of the Cape Verdeans, 1989.


Bartlett, Irving H. “The Free Negro in Providence, Rhode Island.” Negro History Bulletin, 14. December 1950: 51-54, 66, 67. 


*Battle, Charles A. Negroes on the Island of Rhode Island. 1932. N.p.; Reprint: Alexandria, VA: Chadwyck Healey, Inc., 1987.


Beck, Sam. Manny Almeida’s Ringside Lounge: The Cape Verdeans’ Struggle for Their Neighborhood. Providence, RI: Gavea-Brown, 1992. 


Belcher, Horace G. “Mr. Tambo and Mr. Bones: Rhode Island in Negro Minstrelsy.” Rhode Island History. v. 8, no. 4, Oct. 1949: 97-111.


Bell, Carole and Michael Bell. Quilting, Folk Tradition of the Rhode Island Afro- American Community. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Black Heritage Society and St. Martin de Porres Senior Citizens Center, 1981.


Bell, Michael Edward & James Clements, Jr.* Roots and Remedies: Afro-American Folk Medicine in Rhode Island. Providence. Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, [Ca 1980].


*Benard, Akeia A. F. “The Free African American Cultural Landscape: Newport, RI, 1774-1826,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Connecticut, 2008.


Bickford, Christopher P. Picturing History: Wakefield’s Post Office Mural of 1939: Ernest Hamlin Baker’s the Economic Activities of the Narragansett Planters. Kingston, Pettaquamscutt Historical Society, 2003. Mural depicts South County’s slave driven agriculture.


Bless This Food. Community Baptist Church, Paul Laurence Dunbar Club (Newport, Rhode Island). Collierville, TN: Fundcraft. 1993. (Cookbook)


Boltz, Lucy Asako. “Grafting Memory: A Look into the Neighborhood across the Tracks, Urban Renewal and Memories of Displacement from Providence’s West Elmwood Neighborhood. Thesis. Brown Universtiy, 2013


Bouvier, Leon F. and Germaine Dennaker. The Negro in Rhode Island: A Demographic Survey. Kingston, RI: University of Rhode Island, 1969.


Brooks, Jr., George E. “The Providence African Society’s Sierra Leone Emigration Scheme, 1794-1795: Prologue to the African Colonization Movement.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1974: 183-202. http://people.duke.edu/~ldbaker/classes/backtoafrica/documents/brooks1.pdf


Brown, Moses. A Short History of the African Union Meeting and School-House: Erected in Providence (R.I.) in the Years 1819, ’20, ’21; with Rules for Its Future Government. Providence, RI: Brown & Danforth, 1821. Reprint: Rickman Group, c2005. 


Business Directory. Providence, RI: The Marathon Club, 1925. Listings by profession. 


By-laws of the Providence Shelter for Colored Children: As Adopted April 21, 1982. Providence, RI: Providence Shelter for Colored Children. 1982. 


Cabral, Stephen and Sam Beck. NH Distino: Cape Verdean Folk Arts. Providence: Roger Williams Park Museum, 1979. 


Campbell, Jacquelyn. “When is an Indian Not an Indian? In South County, It’s When He’s a Negro.” Providence Journal, Rhode Islander, Feb. 22, 1970: 12-14, 16, 18. 


Centazzo, Frank J. Black Families in Rhode Island. Providence, RI: Housing and Government Services Division. Housing Assistance Section, 1975. 


Chaput, Erik J. and Russell J. DeSimone. “Strange Bedfellows: The Politics of Race in Antebellum Rhode Island” Common-Place. Vol. 10, No. 2. January 2010. <http://www.common-place.org/vol-10/no-02/chaput-desimone>


Cocchini, Marianne, editor. Fox Point and Its People. Providence, RI: Fox Point Community Organization, 1979.


Coli, Waltraud Berger. “Cape Verdean Ethnicity: A Thesis.” Providence, RI: Rhode Island College. 1987. Pawtucket Public Library. 


Colored Orphans Shelter Record Book. March 1838-April 1844. N.p. RIHS.


Conforti, Joseph. “Irving Fain and the Fair Housing Movement in Rhode Island, 1958-1970.” Rhode Island History, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1986: 23-35.


Conley, Patrick T. The Dorr Rebellion: Rhode Island’s Crisis in Constitutional Government. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Bicentennial Commission, 1973


Cottrol, Robert J. The Afro-Yankees: Providence’s Black Community in the Antebellum Era. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.


Cottrol, Robert J. “Black Providence, 1800-1860: A Community’s Formation.” Ph.D. dissertation. Yale University. 1978. RIC.


Coughtry, Jamie and Jay Coughtry. “Black Pauper Burial Records: Providence, Rhode Island, 1777-1831.” Rhode Island History. Vol. 44. No. 4, November 1985: 109-119.


Coughtry, Jay. “African Americans in Rhode Island.” RIHS.


Cranston, G. Timothy and Neil Dunay. We Were Here Too: Selected Stories of Black History in North Kingstown. CreateSpace. 2014. 


See: *Stewart, Rowena

Croteau, Jeffrey. “Black Abolitionists in White Lodges: Richard P.G. Wright and Theodore Sedgwick Wright.” 3rd International Conference on the History of Freemasonry.

George Washington Masonic Memorial, Alexandria, May 2011. Presentation. Wright, (ca. 1778–1847) was an accomplished Black barber in Providence. 

Crouch, John. Providence and the Snow Town Riot of 1831. Providence, RI: Roger Williams National Memorial, 1991, 2007; Providence, RI: Cornerstone Books, 1999.


Dahlberg, Pamela K., *Lima, Mary S., Perry, Katherine, Wiggins, Rosalind C. A Short History of the Providence Shelter for Colored Children 1839-1989. Providence, RI: Providence Association for the Benefit of Colored Children, 1989. 


Daoust, Norma LaSalle. “Building the Democratic Party: Black Voting in Providence in the 1930s.” Rhode Island History. August 1985. Vol. 44, No. 3: 81-88.


Daoust, Norma LaSalle. “Housing the Poor: The Early Years of Public Housing in Providence.” Rhode Island History. February 1993. Vol. 51, No. 1: 23-31.


De Leuw, Cather, Parsons. “Providence Cove Lands, Phase III Report.” Washington, DC: US Dept. of Transportation, April 1984. Findings of an archaeological dig at Snowtown, 19th century Black settlement in Providence. 

DeSimone, Russell J. The Rhode Island Black Community and the Right of Suffrage. Middletown, R.I.: Bartlett Press, 2009.


Dimmick, Robb. “Opening the Oyster: Catering in Black Newport.” Edible Rhody. Providence, RI: Summer 2011. 


*Clements, James, Jr., et al. Discover South Providence. [Providence]: N.d (c 1980). 


*Crummell, Alexander, et al. “To Friends of Equal Rights in Rhode Island.” Providence, 1857 

Earle, Alice Morse. “Tuggie Bannock’s Moonack” and “A Black Politician.” Old Narragansett: Romances and Realities. New York, NY: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1898.

Elbers, Linda Parker. “The Providence Black Community in the Early Nineteenth Century: A Problem in Archaeological Visibility.” Thesis. Brown University, 1986.

Faubert, Cheryl Ann. “Race and Space in Providence: Residential Segregation Measured by the Index of Dissimilarity.” 1995. Thesis. University of Rhode Island. RIC


Facts Involved in the Rhode Island Controversy. Boston, MA: B.B. Mussey, 1842.


First Annual Report of the Providence Society for the Encouragement of Faithful Domestic Servants, Read at the Annual Meeting, January 2, 1832. Providence RI: 1832.


“First Annual Report of the Home of Aged Colored Women, 45 East Transit Street, May 1891.” Providence, RI: J. A. & R. A. Reid Printers, 1891. Christiana C. Bannister founder.


“Forgotten Art, A.” The Old Stone Bank. Providence, RI: Haley & Sykes Co. 1931. Describes the delicate art of making johnny-cake by South County slave cook Phillis.

Franklin, Susan Braley. “Division Street, a Memory and a Warning.” Newport Historical Society Bulletin, March, 1948.

Frieze, Jacob. A Concise History of the Efforts to Obtain an Extension of Suffrage in Rhode Island. Providence, RI: B.F. Moore, 1842. 

Gammell, A. M. & Chas. W. Holbrook. “Report of the Committee on the Petition of James Jefferson and Others for Equal School Rights.” 1865. Hiram H. Thomas & Co.

Girard, Jean. “Anti-Negro Prejudice and Discrimination in Rhode Island, 1860 to 1900.”

[n.p.]: [no pub.], 1966.


Gordon, James J. “Black Institution Building: A Short History of the Free African Union Society and African Benevolent Society, Newport, Rhode Island, 1780-1824.” Ms. Brown University: 1978. RIBHS


Greenfield, Briann. “Marketing the Past: Historic Preservation in Providence, Rhode Island.” Giving Preservation a History: Histories of Historic Preservation in the United States, Max Page and Randall Mason, eds. New York, NY: Routledge, 2003: 163-184. Discusses displacement of Blacks during renewal of Benefit Street.


See: *Gross, Carl


Hammonds, Mora E. “Newport Blacks in Business.” Ms. 1982. RIBHS


Hard-Scrabble Calendar: Report of the Trials of Oliver Cummins, Nathaniel G. Metcalf, Gilbert Humes and Arthur Farrier, Who Were Indicted with Six Others for a Riot, and for Aiding in Pulling Down a Dwelling-house, on the 18th of October, at Hard-Scrabble. Providence, RI: Printed for the Purchaser, 1824. 


Hartwell, John B. & John T. Bush. Minority Report on the Committee of Education upon the Petition of Isaac Rice and Others. Providence, RI: Knowles, Anthony & Co., 1859.

Herndon, Ruth Wallis. “‘Who Died an Expence to this Town?’: Poor Relief in Eighteenth Century Rhode Island.” Down and Out in Early America edited by Billy G. Smith. University Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, 135-62.

Herndon, Ruth Wallis. “‘Women of ‘No Particular Home’: Town Leaders and Female Transients in Rhode Island, 1750-1800.” Women and Freedom in Early America, edited by Larry D. Eldridge. New York, NY: New York University Press, 1997.

Hess, Jeffrey A. “Black Settlement House, East Greenwich, 1902-1914.” Rhode Island History, Summer/Fall 1970. Vol. 29. No. 3 & 4: 113-127.


See: *Hooks, Edward


Hope…Faith and You. Providence, RI: John Hope Community Association. [ca.1950].

Details of a campaign to build a gymnasium for this Black social organization. 


Horton, Caleb T. “The Tide Taken at the Flood: The Black Suffrage Movement During the Dorr Rebellion in the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (1841-1842)” Providence: Providence City Archives. <https://www.providenceri.com/efile/5638>


Howe, Jeffrey. “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: Bristol Crew Lists.” Rhode Island Roots: Journal of the Rhode Island Genealogical Society. Vol. 31, No. 3, September 2005: 143-155.


Howe, Jeffrey. “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: New London, Connecticut Protection Records.” Rhode Island Roots: Journal of the Rhode Island Genealogical Society. Vol. 31, No. 4, December 2005: 196-200.


Howe, Jeffrey. “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: New Bedford Custom House Protection Oaths 1837-1857.” Rhode Island Roots: Journal of the Rhode Island Genealogical Society. Vol. 32, No. 1, March 2006: 43-44.


Howe, Jeffrey. “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: From New Bedford Crew Lists.” Rhode Island Roots: Journal of the Rhode Island Genealogical Society. Vol. 32, No. 2, June 2006: 91-93.


Howe, Jeffrey. History and Genealogy of Descendants of Slaves and Indians from the Island of “Manissee” Block Island. Riverside, RI: Self-published, 1997.


Ihlder, John, et al. “The American Negroes of Providence.” The Houses of Providence: A Study of Present Conditions and Tendencies with Notes on the Surrounding Communities and Some Mill Villages. Providence, RI: Snow & Farnham Co., [c1916]


“Improved Relations through Understanding.” Providence, RI: [Rhode Island Commission Against Discrimination.], 1953. RIC


Irving, Richard F. Toward Equal Opportunity: The Story of the Providence Urban League in the 1940’s. Providence, RI: Urban League of Rhode Island, 1974.


Jackson, Elizabeth B. “Study of Social Types in the Negro Community of Providence.” Thesis. Brown University, 1945.


See: *Jones, Rhett


*Kumekawa, Ryozo Glenn. “The American Negro Population of East Providence: An Analysis of the Migration Pattern to a Suburban Area.” 1955. JHL


Lancaster, Jane. “Encouraging Faithful Domestic Servants: Race, Deviance and Social Control in Providence, 1820-1850,” Rhode Island History, Vol. 51, No.3, 1993: 71-87.


Lemons, J. Stanley and Michael A. McKenna. “Re-enfranchisement of Rhode
Island Negroes.” Rhode Island History, XXX, I, Winter, 1971: 2-12. 


Lemons, J. Stanley. “Rhode Island Blacks and Their Role in the Dorr War.” Reform or Rebellion: Thomas Wilson Dorr and Rhode Island’s Constitutional Struggle. Rhode Island Legacy Drama/Discussion Program Study Guide. RICH. N.d.: 29-34.


Luker, Ralph. “‘Under Our Own Vine and Fig Tree’: From African Unionism to Black Denominationalism in Newport, Rhode Island, 1760-1876.” Slavery and Abolition, Vol. 12, No. 2, (September 1991): 23-48. 


McDowell, Peggy. “The Afro-American Section of Newport, Rhode Island’s Common Burying Ground.” Cemeteries and Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture, edited by Richard E. Meyer. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1992.


Malloy, Mary. “African Americans in the Maritime Trades: A Guide to Resources in New England.” Monograph Series, No. 6. Sharon, MA: Kendall Whaling Museum, 1990. 

McGill, Jason. “The Celebrity Club: Social Change in Postwar Providence.” Rhode Island History. Vol.63, No. 2, Summer 2005: 26-46.


McGuire, Leta Malloy. “Hardscrabble and Snowtown: Growth and Conflict within the Black Communities of Providence.” Honors Thesis. Brown University, 2002.


Melish, Joanne Pope. “The Racial Vernacular: Contesting the Black/White Binary in Nineteenth Century Rhode Island.” Race, Nation and Empire in American History, editors James T. Campbell, Matthew Pratt Guteral, and Robert G. Lee. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 2007.

Minority Health Facts: African Americans in Rhode Island. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Dept. of Health, [1999]


Minutes of a Convention of People of Color for the Promotion of Temperance in New England. Providence, RI: H.H. Brown, 1836. 


“Minority Report on the Petition of Ichabod Northrup* and Others.” 1858. RI General Assembly Committee on Education.


Myths and Images II: The Black Man. Providence: R.I. Rhode Island Black Heritage Society; State Council on the Arts; R.I. Committee for the Humanities, [1980]


Negro in Providence, The. Providence, R.I.: Urban League of Rhode Island, 1945. 


Oba, Susan. “‘Mostly Made, Especially for this Purpose, in Providence, R.I.’: The Rhode Island Negro Cloth Industry.” B.A. honors thesis. Brown University, 2006. JHL


One Hundredth Annual Report of the Providence Shelter for Colored Children. Providence, RI: 1939. Includes Board of Directors, By-Laws, History, Treasurer’s Report and Charter. 

“Our Black Heritage” The Rhode Islander, Providence Journal, 1969. Includes biographies on artist Larry Sykes*, photographer Del Padgett*, journalist James Rhea*, and RI Urban League founder William Wiley*. 


Palumbo-Boland, Vivian. “African Americans’ Influence on Aquidneck Island.” The Impact of Immigration on Aquidneck Island c. 1820-1880. [Newport, R.I.]: [Aquidneck Collaborative for Education], [2004].


Pecker, Lydia. “‘A View of Power’: People of Color in Antebellum Providence, Rhode Island.” Honors Thesis. Brown University, April 2003.

“People of Color - Their Right to Vote.” Providence Daily Journal, September 17, 1841.

Pfautz, Harold W. Leadership in the Providence Black Community. Providence, RI: Urban League of Rhode Island, 1975. 


“Pride and Prejudice: Newport’s Black Families Look to the Past and to the Future.” Sunday Journal Magazine. Providence: Providence Journal, 1992.


Providence Association for the Benefit of Colored Children. Annual Reports 1-12. Providence: 1840-1851. 


Providence Shelter for Colored Children. Annual Report. [S.l. : s.n., 1840] 


Putney, Martha. “Black Merchant Seaman of Newport, 1803-1865: A Case Study in Foreign Commerce.” Journal of Negro History, LVII, #2, April, 1972: 156-168.


Rammelkamp, Julian. “The Providence Negro Community, 1820-1842.” Rhode Island History. 1948, Vol. 7:1: 20-33; Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Black Studies, Vol. VII, No. 1, January, 1948.

“Relocation of Families from Lippitt Hill Area.” [Providence, RI]: [State of Rhode Island, Commission Against Discrimination], [1960]. Interviews and data by Ralph A. Allen.


“Report of the Commission on Employment Problems of the Negro.” Commission on the Employment Problems of the Negro. Providence, RI. May 1943.


“Report of the Racial Patterns of Occupancy in Public Housing in Providence, Rhode Island, 1955-7.” Urban League Papers. RIHS


Report of the Commission on Employment Problems of the Negro. Providence, RI: Commission on the Employment Problems of the Negro, May 1943. 


See: *Robinson, William.


Rohrs, Richard C. “Exercising Their Right: African American Voter Turnout in Antebellum Newport, Rhode Island.” The New England Quarterly. Vol. 84, No. 3, September 2011: 402-421.


Rovzar, Judith Rooney. “Breast Cancer and Self-identified African-American Women in Providence, Rhode Island: A Descriptive Study & Risk Assessment.” 1995. Thesis. RIC.

“Rules and Regulations for the Faithful Servants Society.” Broadside. 1831. RIHS


[Rutter, W.?] Hard Scrabble, or, Miss Philises Bobalition. Boston: [1824?]. Broadside. JHL. Poem about an anti-Negro riot at Hardscrabble, a suburb of Providence, R.I., in 1824. 


Saul, Scott. “The Riot in Reverse: The Newport Rebels, Langston Hughes, and the Mockery of Freedom.” Freedom Is, Freedom Ain’t: Jazz and the Making of the Sixties. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003: 123-145.


*Saunders, Tanya R. Black and Indian Heritage in Rhode Island: A Profile of Historic Events and Landmarks. [Providence, RI]: Urban League of Rhode Island. [1976]


Scanlon, Larry. “News from Heaven: Vernacular Time in Langston Hughes’s Ask Your Mama.” Callaloo, 25: 1 (2002): 45-65.


Schantz, Mark. “A Taste of Civil War: The Dorr Rebellion of 1842.” Piety in Providence: Class Dimensions of Religious Experience in Antebellum Rhode Island. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000. 197-226.


See: *Scott, Daniel


Smith, Matthew J. Inventory to the Urban League of Rhode Island Collection, An. Providence, R.I.: Phillips Memorial Library, Providence College, 1977. 


Snow, Edwin. “Colored Population of Rhode Island.” Report upon the Census of Rhode Island, 1865. 


See: *Sokenu, Julius


Southside Ethnic Business and Cultural Guide: Businesses, Cultural Events, History, Resources. [Providence, R.I.]: Greater Elmwood Neighborhood Services, 1996.


Study of Housing Needs of Non-White Families in the Lippitt Hill Area. [Providence, RI]: [State of Rhode Island, Commission against Discrimination], [1960]. 

Study of the Resources, Capabilities for Rehabilitation and Preferences of Families Living or Owning Property in the Lippitt Hill Rehabilitation Area and Their Attitudes Toward Their Neighborhood and Its Rehabilitation, A. Providence, RI: Urban League of Rhode Island & Providence Redevelopment Agency, 1962. 


Sullivan, Joseph. “Reconstructing the Olney’s Lane Riot: Another Look at Race & Class in Jacksonian Rhode Island.” Rhode Island History, 65, no. 2. Summer 2007: 49-60.


Sullivan, Joseph W. “Rhode Island’s Invisible Empire: A Demographic Glimpse into the Ku Klux Klan.” Rhode Island History. Vol. 47, no. 5, 1989: 74-82.


Summer, Louise Marie and Mairead Byrne. Jennifer’s Family. Netherlands: Schilt Publishing, 2012. Photo-biography of a South Providence family. 


Taylor, Maureen Alice. Runaways, Deserters, and Notorious Villains from Rhode Island Newspapers. Camden, ME: Picton Press, 1994.  


Thurston, Benjamin J. “Brown Men in the Work World.” 1937. Ms. NHS.


Tsai, Luke. “Providence’s Black Chinese: A Love Story.” Creative Nonfiction, Brown Univ. 2001. Online. <http://cds.library.brown.edu/projects/CreativeNonfiction/spring01/tsai.html>


*Turville, George L. Newport Down Under. Wakefield, RI: HELPS Secretarial Service, 1977.


University Heights: A Proposal for Lippitt Hill. Providence, R.I. Providence, RI: City Planning, 1962.


Vincent, Walter B. Speech in the House of Representatives of Rhode Island, March 10, 1881, on the Repeal of the Law Prohibiting the Inter-Marriage of Blacks and Whites. Providence, RI: E.L. Freeman & Co., 1881. 


*Wallace, Isaac and Louis A. Fazzano. Rhode Island Minority Business Enterprise. Providence, RI: RI Department of Economic Development. 1985. Listings of Black owned and operated business.


Whipple, John, et al. History of the Providence Riots from Sept. 21 to Sept. 24, 1831. Providence, RI: H. H. Brown, 1831.


Wiggins, Rosalind; *Jones, Rhett; *Johnson, Douglas. Black Businesses in Rhode Island: Past, Present, Future. Providence, RI: OIC of Rhode Island, Inc., 1983, 


Youngken, Robert C. African Americans in Newport, 1700-1945. Newport, RI: Newport Historical Society. 1995.


Youngken, Richard C. African Americans in Newport: An Introduction to the Heritage of

African Americans in Newport; Rhode Island 1700-1945. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Historical Preservation & Heritage Commission; RI Black Heritage Society, 1995.


Biographies of Rhode Island African Americans

(Anderson, Rev. James Harvey). Biography in One Hundred Years of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church; or, the Centennial of African Methodism. *Hood, J. W. New York, NY: A. M. E. Zion Book Concern, 1895: 238-40. 


(Bannister, Christiana) Lancaster, Jane. “I Would Have Made Out Very Poorly Had It Not Been For Her: The Life and Work of Christiana Bannister, Hair Doctress and Philanthropist.” Rhode Island History. Vol. 59, No. 4, November 2001: 103-121.


Bannister, Edward Mitchell

See: *Jennings, Corrine.


Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. Sharing Traditions: Five Black Artists in Nineteenth-century America: From the Collections of the National Museum of American Art. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985. 

*Forbes, George W. “Edward Mitchell Bannister with Sketches of Earlier Artists.” Ms. Boston Public Library.

4 from Providence: Bannister, Prophet, Alston, Jennings: Black Artists in the Rhode Island Social Landscape. Providence, RI: Rhode Island College, 1978.


*Holland, Juanita Marie; Schwartz, Sheila, editors. Edward Mitchell Bannister, 1828-1901. New York, NY: Kenkeleba Gallery, May 10 - June 27, 1992. (Exhibition catalog)


See: *Jennings, Corrine


Lancaster, Jane. “At Long Last, a Tribute to Bannister.” Lifebeat, Providence Journal. G1, 8. 2002.


Rodgers, Kenneth G. Edward Mitchell Bannister: American Landscape Artist. Durham, NC: Art Museum, North Carolina Central University. 1997. (Exhibition catalog)


Rollins, Daniel. Edward Mitchell Bannister, 1828-1901: Providence Artist. Washington, D.C.: Frederick Douglass Institute; Providence, RI: The Museum, 1966.


Whitaker, George. “Edward M. Bannister.” Ms. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Inst.

End Bannister


(Batson, Flora) Millar, Girard. Life, Travels and Works of Miss Flora Batson: Deceased Queen of Song. T.M.R.M. Co., [c.1907]. JHL. Batson was an accomplished Providence singer. 


(Batson, Flora) “In Retrospect: Black Prima Donnas of the Nineteenth Century.” Cambria Heights, NY: The Black Perspective in Music. Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring, 1979: 95-106

(Benson, Frederick) Hillinger, Charles. “The Living Legend of Block Island: Bachelor Fred Benson, 91, Tends Community He Adopted.” LA Times, May 23, 1986.



(Chambers, Victor) See: Rinaldi, Harriette C.


(Coggeshalls) Bamberg, Cherry Fletcher. “Cato Coggeshalls: An African American Family of Newport and Providence, Rhode Island.” The American Genealogist. Vol. 85, No. 2, April 2011: 141-150; Vol. 85, No. 3, July 2011: 171-175.


(Collins, Primus) Plimpton, Lease. “Primus Collins, 1777-1858: Negro Governor of Rhode Island” Portraits in Time.” Three Centuries of Remarkable Residents 1600-1900. Little Compton Historical Society. 2008: 41-47.


(Crummell, Alexander) Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. Alexander Crummell: A Study of Civilization and Discontent. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989. 


(Davis, Viola) Allison, Laura. An Updated Viola Davis Interpretation - 183 Things You Need To Know. Emereo Publishing, 2015. Tony and Oscar winning actress from Central Falls.


(Davis, Viola) Grimm, R. B. Viola Davis Unauthorized & Uncensored. Famous People Collection, 2015.


Downing, George

See: Dimmick, Robb


Grossman, Lawrence. “George T. Downing and Desegregation of Rhode Island Public Schools 1855-1866.” Rhode Island History, Vol. 36, No. 4, Nov. 1977: 99-105.


Hewitt, J. H. “Mr. Downing and His Oyster House: The Life and Good Works of an African-American Entrepreneur,” New York History. July 1993: 229-252. 


See: *Washington, S.A.M.

End Downing


Eldridge, Elleanor 

Jones, Jacqueline. Dreadful Deceipt. New York, NY: Perseus Books Group, 2014. Chapter on Elleanor Eldridge, savvy but ill-starred businesswoman in antebellum Providence.


Lancaster, Jane. “Eleanor Eldridge.” The Encyclopedia of New England, ed. Burt Feintuch and David H. Watters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.


O’Dowd, Sarah C. “The Memoirs of Elleanor Eldridge.” A Rhode Island Original: Frances Harriet Whipple Green McDougall. Hanover, NH: University of New England Press, 2004: 19-31.

End Eldridge

“Fayerweather Family Reunion.” Self-published. 2012. Family history and photos of this Black South County family.

(Fayerweather Family) “A Profile in Dedication, A: Sarah Harris and the Fayerweather Family.” 1973. New England Galaxy, Vol. XV, No. 1, Summer 1973.

Gardner, Newport                                                                                                                   See: Andrews, Edward E.

Millar, John Fizthugh. “Pachelbel and Gardner, Two Early Newport Composers.” Newport History, 55, Spring 1982.

“Newport Gardner 1746-1826.” Black Perspective in Music. Vol. 4, No. 2, July 1976.

Reynolds, Daniel S. “Newport Gardner: The First African American Music Educator.” Rhode Island’s Musical Heritage: An Exploration, edited by Carolyn Livingston & Dawn Elizabeth Smith. Sterling Heights, MI.: Harmonie Park Press, 2008.

End Gardner


(Gardiner) Cranston, G. Timothy. “The Black Gardiners.” North Kingstown, RI: The View from Swamptown. Vols 8 & 9. January 2007-December 2008: 147-148.


(Harper, Michael) “Michael S. Harper: Poet Laureate of the State of Rhode Island 1988-1993.” Providence, R.I.: Providence Public Library, [1993]. 

(Henry, George) Newton, Frank. “The Curious Saga of George Henry: Enslaved Chesapeake Bay Captain.” Ms.


Hope, John

Davis, Leroy. A Clashing of the Soul: John Hope and the Dilemma of African American Leadership and Black Higher Education in the Early Twentieth Century. Atlanta, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1998. Hope, a prominent 1894 Brown University graduate, was namesake of John Hope Settlement House in Providence.


See: *Trimble, Frank Levi


Torrence, Ridgley. John Hope. New York, NY: 1948. 


(Howland, Thomas) Howland, John. “Thomas Howland and His Portrait.” Address Before the Rhode Island Historical Society. No date. (19th century). Recounts Howland’s 1857 election to office of warden in Providence, the first US Black man elected so.


See: *Jackson, Rev. Henry.


(Jennings, Cederic) Suskind, Ron. A Hope in the Unseen: An American Odyssey from the Inner City to the Ivy League. New York, NY: Broadway Books, 1998. Jennings faces many challenges once accepted into Brown University. 

(Jennings, Wilmer) A Generation of Black Artists: Aaron Douglas, Wilmer Jennings, James Van Der Zee. [Providence]: Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, 1981.


Jones, Sissieretta

“In Retrospect: Black Prima Donnas of the Nineteenth Century.” Cambria Heights, NY: The Black Perspective in Music. Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring, 1979, 95-106. *Jones, the Black soprano, grew up in Providence, toured the world with her own company, and died penniless in Providence.


*Daughtry, Willia Estelle. Vision and Reality: The Story of “Black Patti” Matilda

Sissieretta Joyner Jones. Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Publishing Co., 2002.


*Daughtry, Willia Estelle. “Sissieretta Jones: A Study of the Negro’s Contribution to Nineteenth Century American Concert and Theatrical Life.” Dissertation. Syracuse University, 1968.

Graziano, John. “The Early Life and Career of ‘Black Patti’: The Odyssey of an African American Singer in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Journal of American Musicological Society. Vol. 53, No. 3, 2000: 543-596

Glynn, Helen L. “The Life and Times of Sissieretta Jones.” Rhode Island’s Musical Heritage: An Exploration, ed. Carolyn Livingston and Dawn Elizabeth Smith. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2008.


Lee, Maureen D. “Rhode Island’s Star Soprano: Sissieretta Jones.” Rhode Island History. Vol. 72, No. 2, Summer/Fall 2014: 43-61.


Lee, Maureen D. Sissieretta Jones: “The Greatest Singer of Her Race” 1868-1933. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2012.


“Rhode Island Portraits in Sound.” Script for Sissieretta Joyner Jones, 1975.

End Jones


(*Lane, William Henry Lane) Miller, Frederic P.; Agnes F. Vandome; John McBrewster. Master Juba. Alphascript Publishing Books, 2010. Considered the first tap dancer, Lane, known as ‘Master Juba,’ grew up in Providence.


(Lyons, Maritcha) See: Bolden, Tonya in Juvenilia


(Minkins, John C.) Lambert, Diane E. John Carter Minkins: The First African-American Editor for a White Newspaper. No place. Self-published, 1995.


(Minkins, John C.) Lemons, J. Stanley and Diane Lambert. “John Carter Minkins: Pioneering African-American Newspaperman.” The New England Quarterly. Vol. 76, No. 3, Sep., 2003: 413-438.


Multiple Biographies

“Black History in R.I.” Providence Journal, 1997. Special supplement. Biographies and photos of Edward Mitchell Bannister, Rose Butler Browne, George T. Downing, Inman Page, Nancy Prophet, Fritz Pollard, Sissieretta Jones, Rudolph Fisher, etc.


Cottrol, Robert J., editor. From African to Yankee: Narratives of Slavery and Freedom in Antebellum New England. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1998. Narratives by Venture Smith; Elleanor Eldridge, William J. Brown and George Henry.


Laxton, Glenn. Hidden History of Rhode Island: Not-To-Be-Forgotten Tales of the Ocean State. Mount Pleasant, SC: History Press, 2009. Uncovers the life Robert the Hermit, Christiana Bannister, and others.


“Women in R.I. History: Making a Difference.” 1994. Includes one page biographies on Elleanor Eldridge, Sarah Harris Fayerweather, Christiana Bannister, Sissieretta Jones, and Nancy Elizabeth Prophet.


Moore, Soraya. “A Gallery of Notables.” RIer. Oct. 12, 1969: 24-25. Noted Black RIers. 

End Multiple Biographies


(Phillis) Shepherd Tom. The Jonny-Cake Letters, Dedicated to the Memory of Phillis, My Grandfather’s Colored Cook. 1882. Sidney S. Rider. Providence.


(Pollard, Fritz) Carroll, John M. Fritz Pollard: Pioneer in Racial Advancement. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1992. Pollard, noted Brown football player (1917), started his own team in Providence.


See: *Prince, Arnold


(Prophet, Nancy Elizabeth) *Amaki, Amalia. Hale Woodruff, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet and the Academy. Atlanta, GA: Spelman College Museum of Fine Art, 2007. Sculptor Nancy Elizabeth Prophet was the first Black graduate of RI School of Design.


(Prophet, Nancy Elizabeth) Lancaster, Jane. “‘I Must Work: I Live for That Alone’: Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Rhode Island Sculptor,” Rhode Island Women Speak. Providence, RI: National Museum of Women in the Arts, 1997: 39-47.


(Quamine, John) Bamberg, Cherry Fletcher. “Bristol Yamma and John Quamine in Rhode Island.” Providence, RI: Rhode Island History, Vol. 73, No. 1, Winter/Spring, 2015: 2-30.


(Quamine, John) See: Stiles, Ezra


(Quamino, Duchess) Stokes, Theresa Guzman. “Duchess Quamino: The Pastry Queen of Rhode Island.” East Bay Newspaper. February 22, 2005.


(Robert the Hermit) Trumbull, Henry. Life and Adventures of Robert, the Hermit of Massachusetts, Who has Lived 14 Years in a Cave, Secluded from Human Society. Taken from his own Mouth, and Published for his Benefit. Providence, RI: H. Trumbull, 1829. Robert escaped from slavery, made several voyages, and spent much of his life in a cave near Providence.


(Roome, Cato and George) Cranston, G. Timothy. “The Death of Cato - The Roome Family.” North Kingstown, RI: View from Swamptown. Vols V-VVIII. April 2003-December 2006: 298-299, 300, 301-302.    


(Smith, Venture) See: Nelson, Marilyn in Juvenilia


(Trimble, Frank Levi) Molvar, Kari. “The Forgotten.” Prospect: An Anthology of Creative Nonfiction, Spring 2000. Brown Universtiy. Online. <http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/CreativeNonfiction/spring00/molvar.html>

Trimble and John Hope lived together at Brown in 1890.


(Van Horne, Mahlon) Biography. Story of Rising Race:  the Negro in Revelation, in History, and in Citizenship; What the Race Has Done and Is Doing by Rev. J. J. Pipkin*. N. D. Publishing Company, 1902: 197-213

(Walker, Kara) Gambari, Olga and Luca Morena. Kara Walker: A Negress of Noteworthy Talent. Fondazione Merz, 2012. Walker, noted artist, is a RISD graduate.

(Wiley, George) Kotz, Nick. A Passion for Equality: George A. Wiley and the Movement. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 1977. * Wiley grew up in Warwick, graduated the University of Rhode Island, and in 1964 went to work for CORE.

(Wheatland, Marcus) Oestreich, Alan E. *“Marcus Fitzherbert Wheatland, MD,” Journal of the National Medical Association.  Vol. 87, no. 11, November 1995: 829-838. 


(Yamma, Bristol) See: Bamberg, Cherry Fletcher; Stile, Ezra


(Yates, Josephine Silone) Culp, Daniel Wallace, editor. Twentieth Century Negro Literature; or, a Cyclopedia of Thought on the Vital Topics Relating to the American Negro. Naperville, Ill., Toronto, Can. [etc.]: J. L. Nichols & Co.: 21–29. Yates was the first Black graduate of Rogers High School, Newport, 1877.

(Yates, Josephine Silone) Biography. Homespun Heroines and Other Women of Distinction by Hallie Q. Brown. Xenia, OH: Aldine Publishing Co., 1926: 178-181.

Fiction with Rhode Island African American Themes


*Deane, Pamala-Suzette. My Story Being This: Details of the Life of Mary Williams Magahee, Lady Of Colour. Hanover, NH: Hardscrabble Books - Fiction of New England, 2004. A journal of the desires, everyday life, and culture among free Rhode Island African Americans. 


*Gavin, Walter Harris. The Autobiography of Obsidian Dumar. Createspace, 2013. Dumar, world weary, Pulitzer Prize winning author, professor of literature at Brown is stuck; after instant success with his first book, his publisher has asked him to write a memoir.


Green, Gerald. Murfy’s Men. New York, NY: Seaview Books, 1981. Novel about an Irish slave trader who becomes an officer in the first Black regiment.


Riley, Mildred. Fit To Be Tied. Mira Loma, CA: Parker Publishing. 2011. The blue-blooded son of Rhode Island royalty is forbidden to marry his African American sweetheart.


Sandweiss, Martha. Passing Strange: A Gilded Age Tale of Love and Deception Across the Color Line. New York, NY: Penguin Press, 2009. “Protagonist hides a secret from prominent Newport family: he’s both a celebrated white explorer and a black Pullman porter.” 


Schotter, Roni. Northern Fried Chicken. New York, NY: Philomel Books, 1983. A Jewish high school girl in Providence becomes involved in human rights for Blacks in the early 1960s.




Avi. Something Upstairs. New York, NY: Orchard Books, 1988. Set on Benefit Street, Kenny moves to Providence and discovers that his new house is haunted by a Black slave boy.

Bancroft, Claire, Myra Blank, Barbara Bridge, Jacqueline Smith. Black is as Sweet as Berries. Providence: Providence Public Library, [ca. 1970]. List of Black picture books. 

Bjerregaard, Marcia. First Heroes for Freedom. New York: Silver Moon Press, 2000. In 1778, Cuff, a slave boy, joins the First Rhode Island Regiment.


Bolden, Tonya.  Maritcha: A Nineteenth-Century American Girl.  New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 2005. Lyons was the first Black to enroll in Providence High School, graduating in 1869.


Beyer, Audrey White. Dark Venture. New York: Knopf, 1968. Slave trade story from Gambia to Barbados to Rhode Island through the eyes of a young African boy and a Rhode Island Doctor.


Brennan, Linda Crotta. The Black Regiment of the American Revolution. North Kingstown, RI: Moon Mountain Publishing, 2004.


Cazden, Elizabeth. “Sankofa Boy.” Ms. 2015. The life of Kofi in Colonial Rhode Island


Nelson, Marilyn. The Freedom Business: Including a Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa. Honesdale, Pa.: Wordsong, 2008. African prince captured at age six, taken to Rhode Island and given a new name: Venture.


*Roundtree, Nancy. Tawny. Ca 1960s. Illustrated by the author’s brother, Douglas.

“The Honest Coloured Boy.” The Child’s Magazine Volume XVIII. (Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church). Excerpt from a newspaper, in which an African-American youth in Providence returns lost money.

Whitney, Deborah. The House at Valley Falls: A Station on the Underground Railroad. Emeryville, CA: Chace-Drew Press, 1995. Quaker sisters hide slaves in their Rhode Island home. 




Finding Aids


African Benevolent Society, 1808-1824 - African Union Society, 1793-1810: RIHS


African Humane Society, 1810-1823: RIHS


Arnold Family Business Records: John Carter Brown Library, Brown University 


Black Marriages, Newport, 1790-1834. RIBHS


Black Policeman File: RIBHS


Cesar Lyndon* Account Books, 1761-1770. RIHS (Lyndon was the slave of RI Governor Josias Lyndon)


Christ Church (Colored) Providence Documents: RIHS


Cole Street AME Church: JHS


Colored Union Church File: RIBHS


Community Baptist Church File: RIBHS


Dr. Carl Gross Collection: Special Collections, James P. Adams Library, RIC; Howard University 


Edward Mitchell Bannister Papers: Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution


Household Servant Records 1842-1860, Mary Troop Dorr Ames: JHL


Manuscript Records, Christ Church Episcopal. Providence, 1842.


Marriages of Colored People celebrated by David Pickering, Pastor of the First Universalist Society and Church in Providence, State of Rhode Island: RIHS.


Mt. Zion Baptist Church, Newport Records: RIBHS

Nancy Elizabeth Prophet: Gallery Book: Articles on her life & work: RISD Library


Olivia Ward Bush-Banks Papers: Amistad Research Center


Peace Dale Manufacturing Company Records: Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard. 


Pond Street Baptist Church Records: RIBHS


Providence Abolition Society Minute Meetings: RIHS


Providence City Directories, 1832-1848 contain sections for People of Color


Providence Tax Lists: Providence City Archives (see sections for people of color)


Rice Family File (Newport): RIBHS


Rites & Reason Records, 1970-2006: JHL


Rudolph Fisher Papers, 1919-1983: JHL


Joseph LeCount Papers (noted attorney): RIBHS


Mark Toney Papers (Social activist): RIHS


Ship Charlotte Papers: John Carter Brown Library, Brown University


Union Church, Newport, 1824-1863: RIHS


Urban League of Rhode Island: RIHS


Urban League of Rhode Island Collection, 1938-1970. Williams, James N: PC


Van Horne Family File (Newport): RIBHS


Warned Out Records: RIBHS


Wheatland File (Newport): RIBHS


Online Resources


African-American History in Newport and Rhode Island


African Americans in Rhode Island: On the Road to Freedom http://onfreedom.wordpress.com/category/african-americans-in-ri

African Union Society (Founded 1780)                                     http://socialwelfarehistory.com/eras/african-union-society


Center for the Study of Slavery and Justice at Brown University http://brown.edu/Research/Slavery_Justice


“Documenting Slavery at Cocumscussoc” by Neil Dunay     http://ahistorygarden.blogspot.com/2012/02/neil-dunay-documenting-slavery-at.html


Eyes of Glory: A Story of Faith, Family and Freedom 



1st Rhode Island Regiment of the Continental Line



1st RI Regiment of the Continental Line



George T. Downing Papers, 1850-1886. Roger Williams University http://library.brown.edu/riamco/render.php?eadid=US-RBrRW-ua2013.01&view=inventory


Gilded Age Newport in Color: The African American Summer Experience in Newport



God’s Little Acre: Newport’ African Burial Ground



Guide to Manuscripts at the Rhode Island Historical Society Relating to People of Color http://rihs.org/mssinv/PeopleofColorweb.htm


Heritage Discovered, A



Inheriting the Trade



Inventory to the Rhode Island United States Colored Artillery (Heavy) 11th Regiment



Isaac Peace Rodman



John Carter Minkins



National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Providence Branch. 1937-1974: Providence College



Newport Philips: A North Kingstown Slave Negotiates his Way to Freedom. http://smallstatebighistory.com/newport-philips-a-north-kingstown-slave-negotiates-his-way-to-freedom/

No Braver Men: 1st Rhode Island Regiment during the Revolutionary War



North Kingstown’s Ties to ‘Twelve Years a Slave’




Providence City Directory, 1836-37 (scroll down to see People of Color listings)



Providence City Directory, 1844 (scroll to bottom for “colored persons”)



Redwood Library Titles on African Americans 



Rhode Island: A Bibliography of Its History



Rhode Island African American Data



Rhode Island’s African American Soldiers, Sailors, & Patriots of the Revolutionary War



Rhode Island Black Heritage Society



RI History Magazine. All essays listed above may be found here:


RI Negroes in the Revolution: A Bibliography



RI Slave Trade Manuscripts: RIHS



RI Slave Trader: A Reading List



RI Slavery



Slavery and Justice: Full Report of Brown University’s Steering Committee 



Stories from Stone: Africans in Colonial Rhode Island



Traces of the Trade: A Story from the Deep North (Slavery in Bristol’s DeWolfe family)



Unrighteous Traffick: Rhode Island’s Slave History (The Providence Journal)



Woonsocket’s St. James Baptist Church



Audio/Visual Resources


Aaron Briggs* and the HMS Gaspee. HASC Film. 2014. DVD. 


Jonsie Willis Jones*. [Interview] 1985. 2 sound cassettes. Covers: Jones; Charles Ledo; RI African American life; stevedores and labor unions.


Shades. WSBE minority affairs talk show. VHS recordings. RIHS 


Some Kinda Funny Porto Riccan? Documentary on the Cape Verdeans of Providence


Traces of the Trade: A Story from the Deep North. Tracing Center on Histories and Legacies of Slavery 2008. DVD. 


Wake in Providence, A. Mister P. Productions. [2006] DVD. Anthony Raggio brings his African-American girlfriend Alissa home to meet his Italian-American Rhode Island family.


Walking Tour of Bristol’s African-American History. Bristol: RI School Dept., 1997. VHS.


African American Newspapers in Rhode Island


The Citizen. Providence, RI: John E. Singleton*, editor. 1968-1970. RIHS. 


Douglass Afro-American Press Agency, 1899. Fillmore Rider Purnell*, editor


Ebenezer Grapevine. Providence, R.I.: Ebenezer Baptist Church. 1980-84. RIHS.


New England Grapevine: New England’s Black Newspaper. Coach’s Cultural Hour. Providence, R.I. Doug Terry,* editor: RIHS. 


New England Torchlight, Pawtucket, Eugene Alexander Watson*; J. W. Henderson*, editors, 1890-1896.


North Star. Providence [R.I.]: Erroll E. Hunt*, publisher. First issue June, 14, 1977: RIHS


Ocean State Grapevine. Providence, RI: Coach’s Cultural Hour Inc. Doug Terry,* editor. 1986-87: RIHS.


The Providence Advance. Fillmore Rider Purnell *, founder, editor. 1906-?  


Providence American. Providence, RI: Amerzine. Frank Graham,* editor. 1986-?: RIHS


Providence American. Providence, RI: Peter Wells,* editor. 200_?-Present


Providence Chronicle. William Wiley*, editor and founder. May 20, 1939-1957. Microfilm. Providence College. (An early version of the paper existed from 1924-28, but no issues are located.)


Providence News Democrat, John Carter Minkins,* editor in chief, 1906.


Providence Watchman, Rev. Holland*, editor


Rhode Island Examiner, John Carter Minkins*, owner & editor